By Thera Marie Crane, Larry M. Hyman, Simon Nsielanga Tukumu
This ebook provides the 1st documentation of Nzadi, a Bantu language spoken by means of fishermen alongside the Kasai River within the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). it's the made from large research by means of the authors and members in box tools and team examine classes on the collage of California, Berkeley, and involves ten chapters masking the segmental phonology, tone process, morphology, and sentence constitution, by means of appendices at the Nzadi humans and background and on Proto-Bantu to Nzadi sound adjustments. additionally integrated are 3 texts and a lexicon of over 1100 entries, together with a couple of fish species. ahead of this paintings, Nzadi had no longer even been pointed out within the literature, and at present nonetheless has no access as a language or dialect within the Ethnologue. Of specific curiosity within the research of Nzadi is its massive grammatical simplification, leading to buildings really assorted from these of canonical Bantu languages. even supposing Nzadi has misplaced lots of the inherited agglutinative morphology, there are nonetheless recognizable classification prefixes on nouns and a reflex of noun classification contract in genitive structures. different parts of specific curiosity are human/number contract, tense-aspect-mood marking, non-subject relative clause structures, and WH query formation. This succinct, yet entire grammar presents wide assurance of the phonological, grammatical and semantic homes that may be of power curiosity not just to Bantuists, Africanists and people drawn to this sector of the DRC, but in addition to typologists, basic linguists, and scholars of linguistics.
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Additional info for A Grammar of Nzadi B865 : A Bantu language of Democratic Republic of Congo
Mbuun people’ ‘morning’ ‘umbrella’ ‘flower’ ‘gun’ ‘island’ ‘idiot’ ‘owl’ ‘tobacco’ ‘flea, jigger’ ‘lizard’ cf. mpçs mbu&n mpfer mbvût ntûl ndúN ntsun ndzçç Nku&l NguN Nkpi Ngbee ‘Saturday, week’ ‘forehead’ ‘flour’ ‘response’ ‘chest’ ‘pepper’ ‘odor’ ‘elephant’ ‘cane’ ‘bell’ ‘lion’ ‘side’ A nasal cannot precede another nasal /m/ or /n/, the liquid /l/, or the glides /w/ and /y/. A nasal normally cannot be followed by a fricative. However, besides the name Nzadi, which is how others refer to the language (the self designation is indzéé), two exceptional borrowings have been noted: kimvûk ‘group’, oyánsi ‘a Yansi person’.
43. The above accounts for 424 of the 440 CV(V)C stems in the lexicon. 28] /b/ (5) /s/ (7) /f/ /v/ /y/ (1) (1) (2) Ngab Nkáb ndç^b kyEs mEs Nkîs mpâs o-dE^f mpE^v mçy ‘canoe’ ‘paddle’ ‘fishhook’ ‘happiness’ ‘table’ ‘medicine’ ‘pain’ ‘to borrow’ ‘spirit’ ‘breath, soul’ okûb o-yîb ‘color’ ‘to steal’ makâs mpçs o-pûs ‘anger’ (ma = a borrowed prefix) ‘Saturday, week’ ‘to excite, push’ bç^y ‘servant’ Those ending in /b/ are occasionally pronounced with final [p]. While it is not clear if the b-final words are native Nzadi forms, the rest are either clear or likely borrowings.
2. Contour Simplification While tonal absorption targets the final part of a contour when followed by an identical tone, hence (L)HL before L and LH before H, contour simplification occurs in contexts where the neighboring tone is not identical. 22] that a LH which is followed by a L prefix + H stem will be simplified to L. 24] /ikç&N é ibaa/ /ikç&N é mùùr/ ! ! 1, /é/ conditions a specific set of tonal changes that requires that a preceding LH stem be simplified to L, hence merging with stems which are underlyingly /L/.