By Margaret Akinyi Abira
This research, carried out in Kenya, offers the 1st perception into the functionality of a built remedy wetland receiving pulp and paper mill wastewater within the tropics.
The wetland successfully got rid of natural topic, suspended solids, phenols and nutrition. BOD and phenols aid premiums are suggested for the 1st time. layout parameters and directions for the set-up and upkeep of a full-scale wetland are urged. The research concludes that integrating a full-scale wetland, as a tertiary degree with the prevailing therapy ponds may considerably increase the standard of water in River Nzoia downstream of the effluent discharge.
This is a worthy source publication for scientists, managers and scholars within the box of wetland ecology, water and environmental management.
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Extra info for A Pilot Constructed Treatment Wetland for Pulp and Paper Mill Wastewater: Performance, Processes and Implications for the Nzoia River, Kenya UNESCO-IHE PhD
The flow in the V-notch chamber was adjusted to avoid turbulence while a stopwatch recorded the time taken for the first few drops to emerge at the outlet. The process was repeated once more. , 1997). 6) The resulting interstitial volume was obtained by multiplying the flow by the time (seconds) taken to fill each cell to the preset level. By mid 2004, after nearly two years’ operation, the wastewater had corroded the V-notch weirs thereby altering the notch angle. The wetland cells were henceforth calibrated periodically by completely draining then refilling with known amounts of wastewater.
However, the generated biomass has to be settled externally, in a post-settlement pond (Metcalfe and Eddy, 2003; Eckenfelder, 1980). In the PANPAPER lagoons floating aerators tended to keep the in-situ generated biomass partly in suspension. This together with the ponds’ de-sludging probably caused the increase in TSS in ponds 1 and 2. The organic solids were mainly removed by settling in the first stabilization pond thereby removing the associated BOD (55 %). Overall, the aerated lagoon effluent had BOD in the range 83-153 mg/l.
3. Mean values for various parameters at each stage along PANPAPER Mills’ effluent treatment system (n* = 10). Raw wastewater Clarifier Pond 1 (Aerated) Pond 2 (Aerated) Pond 3 Pond 4 overflow overflow overflow (Stabilisation) (Stabilisation) Parameter/ overflow overflow unit 1 2 3 4 5 6 26 Chapter 2 DO 10 6 8 5 4 6 3 4 2 2 DO mg/l pH units pH 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Sampling point Fig. 4 Variation in pH and DO in the effluent treatment system at different sampling points (n=10). Note: Sampling points 1-7 respectively refer to: raw wastewater = 1, overflows from the clarifier = 2, pond 1 (aerated) = 3, pond 2 (aerated) = 4, ponds 3 and 4 (stabilisation) = 5 and 6, and the end of the effluent channel = 7.