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By Pierre Clastres

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Esta coletânea de onze artigos publicados entre 1962 e 1974 por Pierre Clastres (1934-1977) constitui um dos mais importantes trabalhos de antropologia política já divulgados. A obra reflete uma reviravolta nas ciências humanas, propiciada nos anos 1960 por autores franceses como Claude Lévi-Strauss, Michel Foucault e Gilles Deleuze. Clastres critica a razão política ocidental, aferrada em noções de dominação e subordinação, e afirma que a sociedade civil pode prescindir da figura do Estado. Para demonstrar essa tese audaz, o autor analisa a experiência de povos indígenas da América do Sul.

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Ahistoria do inicio d8JS Missiies e a hist6ria da sua luta contra os Mameluoos. Estes, dizem os arquivos dos jesuitas, teriam em poucos anos morto ou capturado trezentos mil Indios. s sessenta mil Guarani. Em 1631, Montoya resiguou-se a evacuar as dulJ)S ultimas =ervas do Guaira (portanto situadas em territorio portugues). Doze mil indios puseram-se em marcha sob 0 seu comando nurna deseladora ana:blJ)Sia: qUMrO mil sobreviventes atingimm 0 Parana. Numa aldeia, Montoya recenseou cento e setenta famHias, au seja, em palavras mais simples, uma popul~1io de oitocentos a oitocentos e cinquenta pessoas.

Lembremos a 'figura de Quoniambec, esse famoso chefe Tarnoio, queimpressionou tao vivarnente Thevet e Staden. «Este rei era muito venerado por todos os Selvagens, e mesmo por aqueles que nao pertenciam a sua terra, tao born soldado ele tinha :l C. Levi-Strauss, «Guerre et Commerce chez les Indiens de l'Ameri'que du ,Sud" Renaissance, VOl. I. fase. 1 e 2. :: A. Metrawc, La CivUisatlOD materieUe deB tribus Tupi-Guarani, Paris, P. Geutbner, 1928, 1'. 277. 71 sido no seutempo, e tao sabiamente os conduzia na guerra.

Hans Staden, VeritabJe histoire et description d'un pays... situ6 dans Je Nouveau Monde Domme Amerique, Paris, A. Bertrand, 1837. flutuante» determinou 0 reforgo simetrico dastendencias centrifugas imanentes a estrutura dos demas. Ou, por outras palavms, a dinamica aqui descrita e de natureza diwIeotwq,: porque, a medida que se precisa e se &firma a constituigao do sistema, os elementos que 0 comp6em reagem a essa transform~ao do seu estatuto acentuando a sua particularidade conereta, a sua individualidade.

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