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The interest for modified versions of Naples yellow arises from a study by Roy and Berrie that in 1998 discovered the ternary form Pb2Sb2-xSnxO7-x/238 on Italian paintings of the 17th century. 5 The plate is shown in Figure 5b. The zinc modified pigment was used to color the bright orange stole of the boy, while the light yellow decorations on the background were depicted with the conventional lead pyrochlore (Figure 5c). In Figure 5d and e, XRF and Raman spectra collected on yellow and orange areas are compared.

Study of blue pigments of The Ferry Boat from Antwerp (c. 1623) by Jordaens (detail of the painting is shown in the middle). In situ spectra (black lines) used for the identification of (a) smalt (left XRF, right near-FTIR); (b) indigo (left mid-FTIR, right UV-vis fluorescence); (c) azurite (left XRF, right mid-FTIR); (d) cerulean blue (left XRF, right near-FTIR), and (e) Prussian blue (left XRF, right mid-FTIR). Mid-FTIR spectra of references are reported for comparison (blue lines). 10 As an example, the optical image of a cross section from the woman’s skirt is reported in Figure 3f, showing an upper thin layer of discolored smalt over a base of indigo.

In the near-infrared region, the ν+δ(CH) combination bands and the ν(CH) first overtone result in a characteristic profile, distinct for each synthetic resin, thus confirming the presence of PVA. In Figure 7b, two mid-FTIR spectra collected on two paintings are compared with an animal glue standard. The combined presence of signals at 1660 cm-1 (amide I), 3070 cm-1 (2δNH), and 3309 cm-1 (νNH) sug- FIGURE 7. Study of Burri’s painting technique. Upper: (a) mid-FTIR spectra collected on smooth (B52_a) and rough (B52_b) areas of Bianco; for comparative purposes the spectra of standards are reported (gray lines).

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