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Something shady, something that ought to be overcome and banished from our mind ... 108 1. Preliminary Issues 49 Putting it more on a linguistic level, Eco argues that ideological manipulation endeavors to conceal the various present options, and must therefore involve a rhetorical labor of code shifting and overcoding (via what he calles 'inventio' and *dispositio'). Ideology is *a partial and disconnected world vision*. By disregarding the multiple interconnections of the semantic universe, it also conceals the pragmatic reasons for which certain signs (with all their various interpretations) were produced.

The reason that they do not possess true consciousness is because 'social being ... determines consciousness'; hence, the truth about man is one and the same for all stages of history, but every stage produces its own illusions. And this has been the state of affairs in history, but is due to disappear when a rational order has been created. 100 Second, ideology can be defined in a restrictive sense. In other words, it is only those aspects which are distorted or unduly selective. '101 Thus ideology consists only of those parts or aspects of a system of social ideas which are distorted or unduly selective from a scientific viewpoint.

29 Such approaches to genre cannot succeed in helping to solve the difficulties confronted in the study of ancient Near Eastern and biblical historiography. Finally, Van Seters views history as secular, unbiased, scientific, and antithetical to religion. Moreover, he implies that true history writing is non-pragmatic and non-didactic. Thus, he argues: The Hittites were more interested in using the past than in recording it, and they used it for a variety of purposes. In the Old Kingdom ... there was the strong tendency ...

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