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By Graciliano Ramos

About the author:

Graciliano Ramos was once commonly one in all an important Brazilian authors of the twentieth century. He was once a seminal voice within the literary "regionalism" movement.
As a baby Ramos lived in lots of towns of Northeastern Brazil, suffering from poverty and critical climatic conditions (droughts). After high-school, Graciliano went to Rio de Janeiro the place he labored as a journalist. In 1915 he traveled to Palmeira dos Indios, country of Alagoas, to dwell together with his father and in 1927 he used to be elected mayor.
In 1933 he released his first ebook, Caetés. many years later he was once jailed by means of the Getúlio Vargas executive, on a cost that used to be by no means made transparent. His studies in prison might develop into a distinct own deposition, Memórias do Cárcere.
Graciliano died in 1953, on the age of 60. His "dry" type of writing and the clash among the identification and the realm are the numerous marks of his works.

About the publication (in Portuguese):

Marco do romance moderno brasileiro, "Angústia" é a expressão máxima do embate, entre a subjetividade do escritor e a realidade objetiva é sempre opressora, que se revela na figura de um pequeno funcionário e sua consciência de condenado à mediocridade.

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Sample text

Gaius Gracchus began a massive distribution of grain to the people, but this exhausted the treasury. Marcus Octavius was more modest in handing out food to the poor, which was both manageable to the state and helpful to those in need. Thus he served the interests of both. Whoever governs a country must first see to it that citizens keep what belongs to them 37 H O W T O R UN A CO UN T RY and that the state does not take from individuals what is rightfully theirs. When Philippus was a tribune, he proposed a ruinous law to distribute land, though when his bill was voted down he took it very well and accepted defeat graciously.

Though the latter parts of the book are poorly preserved, the fragments that do survive present an inspiring vision of what a leader should be. The ideal state is one in which the best people desire praise and honor while avoiding humiliation and disgrace. Such citizens are not deterred from wrongdoing by a fear of punishment as laid out in the law as much as by an inborn sense of shame given to us by nature itself that makes us dread the thought of justified criticism.  . Just as a helmsman desires a successful voyage or a doctor works for the health of a patient or a general plans for victory, so the leader of a country should strive for citizens to lead a happy life with financial security, abundant resources, good reputations, and honest virtue.

Though the latter parts of the book are poorly preserved, the fragments that do survive present an inspiring vision of what a leader should be. The ideal state is one in which the best people desire praise and honor while avoiding humiliation and disgrace. Such citizens are not deterred from wrongdoing by a fear of punishment as laid out in the law as much as by an inborn sense of shame given to us by nature itself that makes us dread the thought of justified criticism.  . Just as a helmsman desires a successful voyage or a doctor works for the health of a patient or a general plans for victory, so the leader of a country should strive for citizens to lead a happy life with financial security, abundant resources, good reputations, and honest virtue.

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